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Word analysis

Simplified analysis
olla  olla, Verb, First infinitive
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olla, Verb

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Indicative present

i olen en ole
ii olet et ole
iii on ei ole
i olemme / ollaan emme ole / ei olla
ii olette ette ole
iii ovat eivät ole

Indicative imperfect

i olin en ollut
ii olit et ollut
iii oli ei ollut
i olimme / oltiin emme olleet / ei oltu
ii olitte ette olleet
iii olivat eivät olleet

Indicative perfect

i olen ollut en ole ollut
ii olet ollut et ole ollut
iii on ollut ei ole ollut
i olemme olleet emme ole olleet
ii olette olleet ette ole olleet
iii ovat olleet eivät ole olleet
(copulative) to be (indicating that the subject and the complement of the verb form the same thing)

     Fin: Minä olen onnellinen.
     Eng: ― I am happy.
     Fin: Minä olen lääkäri.
     Eng: ― I am a doctor.
(intransitive) to be (occupy a place)

     Fin: Minä olen kotona.
     Eng: ― I am at home.
(copulative) to be, constitute, make up, form

     Fin: Tuo on maanpetos.
     Eng: ― That constitutes (high) treason.
(intransitive, adessive + 3rd person singular + ~) to have; to own, to possess

     Synonym: omistaa (to own), omata (discouraged in most cases)
     Fin: Minulla on/oli/on ollut kissa (nom.). (when in positive sentences, countable nouns in nominative) ― I have/had/have had a cat.
     Fin: Minulla ei ole kissaa (part.). (when in negative sentences, countable nouns in partitive) ― I don't have a cat.
     Fin: Minulla on/oli/on ollut sinut (acc.). (when in positive sentences, personal pronouns in accusative) ― I have/had/have had you.
     Fin: Minulla ei ole/ei ollut/ei ole ollut sinua (part.). (when in negative sentences, personal pronouns in partitive) ― I don't have/didn't have/haven't had you.
(intransitive, inessive + 3rd person singular + ~) to have, to possess (as a feature or capability, as opposed to simple possession; almost always for inanimate subjects)

     Fin: Tässä autossa on kaikki lisävarusteet.
     Eng: ― This car has all the accessories.
(intransitive, ~ (olemassa)) to exist (the subject often indefinite = in partitive case -> verb in 3rd-pers. singular)

     Fin: Rakkautta ei ole (olemassa).
     Eng: ― Love doesn't exist.
(intransitive) to behave, act (as if...) (when followed by a essive plural form of a present active participle with possessive suffix, or a subordinate clause beginning with (ikään,) kuin, requiring conditional mood)

     Fin: Hän ei ollut huomaavinaan mitään.
     Eng: ― He behaved as if he hadn't noticed anything.
(transitive, auxiliary) to have (a verb to build active present perfect tense and active past perfect tense, taking active past participle, ending -nut/-nyt (singular) or -neet (pl.))

     Fin: Olen jo syönyt tänään.
     Eng: ― I have already eaten today.
     Fin: Olemme jo syöneet tänään.
     Eng: ― We have already eaten today.
     Fin: Olin jo syönyt.
     Eng: ― I had already eaten.
     Fin: Olimme jo syöneet.
     Eng: ― We had already eaten.
(transitive, auxiliary) to have (a verb to build impersonal simple past tense, impersonal passive present perfect tense and impersonal passive past perfect tense, taking passive past participle, ending -tu/-ty)

     Fin: Aamiainen oli jo syöty.
     Eng: ― Breakfast had already been eaten.
     Fin: Minulla on/ei ole rahaa (part.). (singular uncountable nouns in partitive in both positive and negative sentences) ― I have/don't have money.
     Fin: Minulla on valta (nom.). (with an uncountable noun in nominative, the meaning or nuance of the sentence changes)
     Eng: ― I've got the power.
(intransitive, 3rd person singular) (there) be

     Fin: Pöydällä on kissa. (when in positive sentences, singular countable nouns in nominative)
     Eng: ― There is a cat on the table.
     Fin: Pöydällä ei ole kissaa. (when in negative sentences, singular countable nouns in partitive)
     Eng: ― There is no cat on the table.
     Fin: Pöydällä on/ei ole kissoja. (plural countable nouns in partitive in both positive and negative sentences)
     Eng: ― There are (some) cats / There are no cats on the table.
     Fin: Lattialla on/ei ole rahaa. (singular uncountable nouns in partitive in both positive and negative sentences)
     Eng: ― There is (some) / There is no money on the floor.
(intransitive, + genitive + 3rd person singular + passive present participle) to have to do something, must do something; be obliged/forced to do something

     Fin: Minun (gen.) on nyt mentävä. ― I have to go now.
     Fin: Minun on palautettava kirja kirjastoon perjantaihin mennessä. ― I have to return the book to the library by Friday. that same in passive: nominative/accusative + 3rd-pers. singular + passive present participle, -tava/-tävä
     Eng: to have to be done, must be done
     Fin: Kirja (nom.) on palautettava kirjastoon perjantaihin mennessä. (countable nouns in nominative) ― The book has to be returned to the library by Friday.
     Fin: Onko sinut (acc.) hiljennettevä pakolla? (personal pronouns in accusative) ― Do I have to make you shut your mouth? (literally, “Do you have to be quietened by force?”)
(transitive) to play a children's game

     Synonym: leikkiä
In the sense “to have” the verb olla is always in third person singular form and the person who has something is indicated with adessive case. Grammatically the thing owned is the subject-complement of the sentence: minulla on ― I havesinulla on ― you havehänellä on ― he/she hassillä on ― it hasmeillä on ― we haveteillä on ― you haveheillä on ― they haveLassilla on ― Lassi haskaupungin terveyslautakunnalla on ― the municipal health board has Same applies through all tenses, infinitives and participles (where they make sense), e.g. minulla ei olisi ollut ― I would not have hadminulla rupeaa olemaan ― I am beginning to have The meaning "there be" is rarely used without adverbials (such as those describing a location); it is more common to use olla olemassa in such cases.olla (+ vähällä) + infinitive = to almost/nearly (do something accidental, harmful, wrong or fateful).Olin (vähällä) kaatua lattialle. ― I almost fell on the floor.olla + essive plural form of an active present participle (-vina/-vinä) + possessive suffix = to be supposed to do, pretend to do, put on airs of doing, affect:Mikä tämä on olevinaan? (speaker belittling the object in front of her/him) ― What is this supposed to be?Olit olevinasi niin täydellinen. ― You pretended to be so damn perfect.olla + fifth infinitive + possessive suffix by person = to be about to do (when something happens preventing it):Olin lähtemäisilläni ulos, kun puhelin soi. ― I was about to go out when the phone rang.olla määrä (“to be to, to be due to”)Se on määrä sulkea viiden vuoden sisällä. ― It is due to close within five years.genitive + 3rd-pers. singular + pakko + infinitive = to must, have to, be forced to:Minun on pakko lähteä nyt. ― I have to leave now.genitive + olisi (conditional) parasta + infinitive = had better + infinitive:Sinun olisi parasta olla hiljaa. ― You had better be silent.olla + long first infinitive = to be to do something (often implying that one is resigning to fate)Hän lähtee, jos on lähteäkseen. ― He'll leave if he is (fated) to leave.(interjection): olkoon menneeksi (“(okay,...) why not, go ahead, (colloquial) what the hell”)olkoonkin(, että...) (“never mind (that...)”)olla kunnossa (“to be in shape; to be in order”)If used without an adjective, olla kunnossa is a positive expression, and one might as well say olla hyvässä kunnossa (to be in good shape/order):Olen kamalassa kunnossa. ― I'm in an awful shape.
Derived terms:
oli miten oli
oleilla (frequentative)
oleskella (frequentative)
olettaa (causative)
oleutua (reflexive)

From several different roots. The normal forms in ol- derive from Proto-Finnic oldak, from Proto-Uralic wole-. Cognates include Estonian olema, Hungarian volt. The forms on and ovat are probably from the same root as oma (and possibly olla, if a frequentative derivation of that root). Cognates are found in Karelian on, Livonian um, Veps om, Votic on, Hungarian van, Võro om/um and ommaq/ummaq. ovat further likely has the standard 3rd person plural -vat in the ending, but could originate from earlier omat, with the plural suffix -t. The potential forms in lie- derive from Proto-Finnic leedäk, from Proto-Uralic le- (“to become”). Cognate with Karelian lienöy, Livonian līdõ, Veps linda, Hungarian lenni/legyek, Northern Sami leat.
Source: Wiktionary

Indicative plusquamperfect

i olin ollut en ollut ollut
ii olit ollut et ollut ollut
iii oli ollut ei ollut ollut
i olimme olleet emme olleet olleet
ii olitte olleet ette olleet olleet
iii olivat olleet eivät olleet olleet

Conditional present

i olisin en olisi
ii olisit et olisi
iii olisi ei olisi
i olisimme emme olisi
ii olisitte ette olisi
iii olisivat eivät olisi

Potential present

i ollen / lienen en olle / liene /
ii ollet / lienet et olle / liene /
iii ollee / lienee /
ei olle / liene /
i ollemme / lienemme emme olle / liene /
ii ollette / lienette ette olle / liene /
iii ollevat / lienevät eivät olle / liene /

Conditional perfect

i olisin ollut en olisi ollut
ii olisit ollut et olisi ollut
iii olisi ollut ei olisi ollut
i olisimme olleet emme olisi olleet
ii olisitte olleet ette olisi olleet
iii olisivat olleet eivät olisi olleet

Potential perfect

i lienen ollut en liene ollut
ii lienet ollut et liene ollut
iii lienee ollut ei liene ollut
i lienemme olleet emme liene olleet
ii lienette olleet ette liene olleet
iii lienevät olleet eivät liene olleet


i -
ii ole
iii olkoon
i olkaamme
ii olkaa
iii olkoot

Infinitive I

Nom - olla
Tra -ksi ollaksensa / ollakseen

Infinitive II

Ine -ssa ollessa
Ins -in ollen
Ine -ssa oltaessa (passive)

Infinitive IV

Nom - oleminen
Par -ta olemista

Infinitive III

Ill mihin olemaan
Ine -ssa olemassa
Ela -sta olemasta
Ade -lla olemalla
Abe -tta olematta
Ins -in oleman
Ins -in - (passive)

Infinitive V



Present ollaan ei olla
Imperfect oltiin ei oltu
Potential oltaneen ei oltane
Conditional oltaisiin ei oltaisi
Imperative Present oltakoon älköön oltako
Imperative Perfect olkoon oltu älköön olko oltu


1st oleva oltava
2nd ollut oltu
3rd olema -
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